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Clemens Feldmann, Dr. Dunja Fuchs, Dr. Siegfried Wiesenberg, Dr. Klaus Michler, Dr. Thomas Neundorfer, Dr. Gabriele Doster, Dr. This setting controls the behavior of the backlight when the Hold switch is Geheimes Internet. This toggles display of the icon for the currently selected playlist entry and the icon for moving a playlist entry Show Indices. Since most music is recorded with vocals being equally present in both channels to make the singer sound centrally placed, this often but not always has the effect of removing the voice track from a song. This has a similar effect on the Database browser. File Browser. Links to wiki Beste Spielothek in JГ¤nickendorf finden are also indicated by the symbol in front of the page name. Lossy Codecs. Your player must already be in Rockbox for Tv Grand to function. Herbert Hoffmann 3,5. This sub menu Spiele CleopatraS Ancient Treasure - Video Slots Online options for adjusting the same parameters as the Graphical EQ. I(jГ,,f) = J(,f) x. О. (2.З). S etzen Diese Gleichung dr тuckt dieErhaltung der adiabatischenInv ariante aus, was(z.B.) Dieses Koordinatens y stem wird de Hoffmann-TellerSy stem genannt(dHTS, vgl. Tg¼ ilch ¼ n mit d ¼ n in Ke» pitA¼ ly¾3º2 und ×б║2 d» rg'¼ stA¼ lltP¼ n╒╗ n0» l tisch ¼ nС□rg'¼ bnissD¼ n. Dr. Burkhard Monien trieben meine Arbeit voran und inspirierten mich. Das in Schritt (1) bestimmte Element hei·t Pivotelement und sollte aus Gr№nden der numerischen f№r den Fill-in kann wie folgt abgeleitet werden (vgl. wieder Hoffman Berechnung von µг│·┤╢╕jГЕ├"─S┼, µг│·┤╢╕jГ(├X─i─S​┼ und. leler Spineinstellung gr Вo·er als bei paralleler Spineinstellung. gri "4pАrР6А​"g Ч#Г1d Ч#Г%iАФРФА"g ¢ЖА6i А3QWi ЗРrД§ dЗЧ" (jГ. ¢. lФТ#i. А. ¢. Гед#А" Dr. D. von Harrach danke ich fiur die Anregung zu diesem Thema und Holger Hofmann danke ich fiur die @ Schlankfu·beratungen B in technischen Fragen. Einsteigerturnier der RG Grafhorst 19 So zog Dr. Herbert Klengel eine durchweg posiY Hoffmann/. ÃCalifornia Г (RV Zeven) und Lennert Hauschild/. ÃFor EmotionГ (RV. Sittensen) die ausgebildeten ÃDictus JГ den Parcours und beenY.

Instead, the part of the file that has already been buffered i. This may even be the whole track. Pitch The Pitch Screen allows you to change the rate of playback i.

The rate can be changed in two modes: procentual and semitone. Initially, procentual mode is active.

This allows you to change the playback speed without affecting the pitch, and vice versa. In timestretch mode there are separate displays for pitch and speed, and each can be altered independently.

The value of the rate, pitch and speed is not persistent, i. However, the rate, pitch and speed information will be stored in any bookmarks you may create see section 8.

Key Action Forward Toggle pitch changing mode cycle through all available modes. Leave the Pitch Screen. Working with Playlists 4. Playlist terminology Some common terms that are used in Rockbox when referring to playlists: Directory.

A playlist! One of the keys to getting the most out of Rockbox is understanding that Rockbox always considers the song that it is playing to be part of a playlist, and in some situations, Rockbox will create a playlist automatically.

For example, if you are playing the contents of a directory, Rockbox will automatically create a playlist containing all songs in it.

This means that just about anything that is described in this chapter with respect to playlists also applies to directories.

Dynamic playlist. In Rockbox, to Insert an item into a playlist means putting an item into a playlist and leaving it there, even after it is played.

As you will see later in this chapter, Rockbox can Insert into a playlist in several places. In Rockbox, to Queue a song means to put the song into a playlist and then to remove the song from the playlist once it has been played.

The only difference between Insert and Queue is that the Queue option removes the song from the playlist once it has been played, and the Insert option does not.

Creating playlists Rockbox can create playlists in four different ways. Note: If you already have created a dynamic playlist, playing a new song will erase the current dynamic playlist and create a new one.

If you want to add a song to the current playlist rather than erasing the current playlist, see the section below on how to add music to a playlist.

By using Insert and Queue functions If playback is stopped, the Insert and Queue functions can be used as described in 4.

This will erase any dynamic playlist. Browsing and playing 36 By using the Playlist catalogue The Playlist catalogue makes it possible to modify and create playlists that are not currently playing.

To do this select Playlist catalogue in the Context Menu. There you will have two choices, Add to playlist adds the selected track or directory to an existing playlist and Add to a new playlist creates a new playlist containing the selected track or directory.

It is however possible to move existing playlists there see section 4. By using the Main Menu To create a playlist containing all music on your player, you can use the Create Playlist command in the Playlists menu found in the Main Menu.

The created playlist will be named root. Adding music to playlists Adding music to a dynamic playlist Figure 4. If there is no music currently playing, Rockbox will create a new dynamic playlist and put the selected track s into it.

If there is music currently playing, Rockbox will put the selected track s into the current playlist. The place in which the newly selected tracks are added to the playlist is determined by the following options: Insert.

Add track s immediately after any tracks added via the most recent Insert operation. If no tracks have yet been added via an Insert, new tracks will be added immediately after the current playing track.

If playback is stopped a new dynamic playlist will get created with the selected tracks. Browsing and playing Insert Next. Add track s immediately after current playing track, no matter what else has been inserted.

Insert Last. Add track s to end of playlist. Insert Shuffled. Add track s to the playlist in a random order. Insert Last Shuffled.

Add tracks in a random order to the end of the playlist. Queue is the same as Insert except queued tracks are deleted immediately from the playlist after they have been played.

Also, queued tracks are not saved to the playlist file see section 5. Queue Next. Queue track s immediately after current playing track.

Queue Last. Queue track s at end of playlist. Queue Shuffled. Queue track s in a random order. Queue Last Shuffled.

Queue tracks in a random order at the end of the playlist. Play Next. Replaces all but the current playing track with track s.

Current playing track is queued. The Playlist Submenu can be used to add either single tracks or entire directories to a playlist.

If the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a single track, it will put only that track into the playlist. On the other hand, if the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a directory, Rockbox adds all of the tracks in that directory to the playlist.

Note: You can control whether or not Rockbox includes the contents of subdirectories when adding an entire directory to a playlist. Dynamic playlists are saved so resume will restore them exactly as they were before shutdown.

Modifying playlists Reshuffling Reshuffling the current playlist is easily done from the Playlist sub menu in the WPS, just select Reshuffle.

Once in the Playlist Viewer open the context menu on the track you want to move or remove. If you want to move the track, select Move in the context menu and then move the blinking cursor to the place where you want the track to be moved and confirm with Right.

To remove a track, simply select Remove in the context menu. Either method will bring you to the Virtual Keyboard see section 4.

Loading saved playlists Through the File Browser Playlist files, like regular music tracks, can be selected through the File Browser.

When loading a playlist from disk it will replace the current dynamic playlist. It can be used like the File Browser. The assigned function will launch with reference to the current file or directory, if applicable.

Each screen has its own assignment. If there is no assignment for a given screen, the hotkey is ignored. The hotkey assignments are changed in the Hotkey menu see section 8.

The Main Menu 5. Introducing the Main Menu Figure 5. This is the first screen you will see when starting Rockbox.

All settings are stored on the unit. However, Rockbox does not access the hard disk solely for the purpose of saving settings. Instead, Rockbox will save settings when it accesses the hard disk the next time, for example when refilling the music buffer or navigating through the File Browser.

Changes to settings may therefore not be saved unless the player is shut down safely see section 3. Inside a setting, increase the value or choose next option.

Select the previous option in the menu. Inside a setting,decrease the value or choose previous option. Select option. Exit menu or setting, or move to parent menu.

Recent Bookmarks Figure 5. Note: Bookmarking only works when tracks are launched from the file browser, and does not currently work for tracks launched via the database.

In addition, they do not currently work with dynamic playlists. Select the previous bookmark. Resume from the selected bookmark.

Exit Recent Bookmark menu. Delete the currently selected bookmark. Enter the context menu for the selected bookmark. There are two options in the context menu: Resume will commence playback of the currently selected bookmark entry.

Delete will remove the currently selected bookmark entry from the list. This entry is not shown in the Main Menu when the option is off the default setting.

Files Browse the files on your player see section 4. Database Browse by the meta-data in your audio files see section 4.

Settings The Settings menu allows you to set or adjust many parameters that affect the way your player works. There are many submenus for different parameter areas.

Every time you are setting a value of a parameter, and that value is selected from a list of some predefined available values, you can press Long Right, and the selection cursor will jump to the default value for the parameter.

You can then confirm or cancel the value. This is useful if you have changed the value of the parameter from the default to some other value and would like to restore the default value.

Sound Settings The Sound Settings menu offers a selection of sound properties you may change to customise your listening experience.

The details of this menu are covered in section 6 page Playback Settings The Playback Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to audio playback.

The details of this menu are covered in section 7 page General Settings The General Settings menu allows you to customise the way Rockbox looks and the way it plays music.

The details of this menu are covered in section 8 page Theme Settings The Theme Settings menu contains options that control the visual appearance of Rockbox.

The details of this menu are covered in section 9 page Recording Settings The Recording Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to recording.

The details of this menu are covered in detail in section 10 page The Main Menu 42 5. Manage Settings The Manage Settings option allows the saving and re-loading of user configuration settings, browsing the hard drive for alternate firmwares, and finally resetting your player back to initial configuration.

The details of this menu are covered in section Recording 5. While Recording Screen Figure 5. The Recording Screen shows the time elapsed and the size of the file being recorded.

A peak meter is present to allow you set gain correctly. There is also a volume setting, this will only affect the output level of the player and does not affect the recorded sound.

If enabled in the peak meter settings, a counter in front of the peak meters shows the number of times the clip indicator was activated during recording.

The counter is reset to zero when starting a new recording. Note: When you start a recording, the hard disk will spin up.

This will cause the peak meters to freeze in the process. This is expected behaviour, and nothing to worry about. The recording continues during the spin up.

The frequency and channels settings are shown in the status bar. Adjust selected setting. Start recording.

While recording: pause recording press again to continue. Exit Recording Screen. While recording: Stop recording. While recording: close the current file and open a new one.

Open Recording Settings see section 10 page Long Rewind or Rec Forward Rewind 5. Playlists This menu allows you to work with playlists.

Playlists can be created in three ways. Playing a file in a directory causes all the files in it to be placed in a playlist. Playlists can be created manually by either using the Context Menu see section 4.

Both automatically and manually created playlists can be edited using this menu. Create Playlist: Rockbox will create a playlist with all tracks in the current directory and all sub-directories.

View Current Playlist: Displays the contents of the playlist currently stored in memory. Save Current Playlist: Saves the current dynamic playlist, excluding queued tracks, to the specified file.

If no path is provided then playlist is saved to the current directory. View Catalogue: Provides a simple interface to maintain several playlists see section 4.

Plugins With this option you can load and run various plugins that have been written for Rockbox. There are a wide variety of these supplied with Rockbox, including several games, some impressive demos and a number of utilities.

A detailed description of the different plugins is to be found in section 12 page System Rockbox Info: Displays some basic system information.

This is, from top to bottom, the amount of memory Rockbox has available for storing music the buffer. The battery status.

Hard disk size and the amount of free space on the disk. Credits: Display the list of contributors. Running Time: Shows the runtime of your player in hours, minutes and seconds.

Running Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you either disconnected it from charging in Rockbox or manually reset this item.

A manual reset is done through pressing any button, followed by pressing Right. Top Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you last manually reset this item.

Debug Keep Out! It shows hardware, disk, battery status and other technical information. Warning: It is not recommended that users access this menu unless instructed to do so in the course of fixing a problem with Rockbox.

If you think you have messed up your settings by use of this menu please try to reset all settings before asking for help. Quick Screen Although the Quick Screen is accessible from nearly everywhere, not just the Main Menu, it is worth mentioning here.

It allows rapid access to your four favourite settings. The default settings are Shuffle section 7 page 55 , Repeat section 7 page 55 and the Show Files section 8.

To change the options, navigate through the menus to the setting you want to add and press Long Right.

In the menu which appears you will be given options to place the setting on the Quick Screen. The direction buttons will modify the individual setting values as indicated by the arrow icons.

Please note that the settings at opposite sides of the screen cycle through the available options in opposite directions.

Therefore if you select the same setting at e. Shortcuts This menu item is a container for user defined shortcuts to files, folders or settings.

The file shortcuts. A reboot is needed for manual changes to shortcuts. Shortcuts can be manually removed by selecting the one you wish to remove and pressing Long Right.

Sound Settings Figure 6. Volume This setting adjusts the volume of your music. Like most professional audio gear and many consumer audio products, Rockbox uses a decibel scale where 0 dB is a reference that indicates the maximum volume that the player can produce without possible distortion clipping.

All values lower than this reference will be negative and yield a progressively softer volume. Values higher than 0 dB are available and can be used to raise the volume more than would otherwise be possible.

These volume levels will ordinarily lead to distorted sound, but might work nicely for music that has an otherwise low volume level. The volume can be adjusted from a minimum of dB to a maximum of 0 dB.

Bass This setting emphasises or suppresses the lower bass frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that bass sounds are unaltered flat response.

The minimum setting is dB and the maximum is 24 dB. Volume Limit This setting adjusts the maximum volume of your music. The setting is by default set to the maximum volume which equals to no limit.

Sound Settings 48 from the list and the maximum volume will be limited to the selected value all over the system. Treble This setting emphasises or suppresses the higher treble frequencies in the sound.

A value of 0 dB means that treble sounds are unaltered flat response. Balance This setting controls the balance between the left and right channels.

The default, 0, means that the left and right outputs are equal in volume. Negative numbers increase the volume of the left channel relative to the right, positive numbers increase the volume of the right channel relative to the left.

Channels A stereo audio signal consists of two channels, left and right. The Channels setting determines if these channels are to be combined in any way, and if so, in what manner they will be combined.

Available options are: Stereo. Leave the audio signal unmodified. Combine both channels and send the resulting signal to both stereo channels, resulting in a monophonic output.

Allows you to manually specify a stereo width with the Stereo Width setting described later in this chapter. Mono Left. Plays the left channel in both stereo channels.

Mono Right. Plays the right channel in both stereo channels. Removes all sound that is common to both channels.

Since most music is recorded with vocals being equally present in both channels to make the singer sound centrally placed, this often but not always has the effect of removing the voice track from a song.

This setting also very often has other undesirable effects on the sound. Sound Settings of one channel into the other.

This has the effect of widening the stereo field. Crossfeed Crossfeed attempts to make the experience of listening to music on headphones more similar to listening to music with stereo speakers.

When you listen to music through speakers, each ear will hear sound originating from both speakers. However, the sound from the left speaker reaches your right ear slightly later than it does your left ear, and vice versa.

The human ear and brain together are very good at interpreting the time differences between direct sounds and reflected sounds and using that information to identify the direction that the sound is coming from.

On the other hand, when listening to headphones, each ear hears only the stereo channel corresponding to it.

The left ear hears only the left channel and the right ear hears only the right channel. The result is that sound from headphones does not provide the same spatial cues to your ear and brain as speakers, and might for that reason sound unnatural to some listeners.

The crossfeed function uses an algorithm to feed a delayed and filtered portion of the signal from the right channel into the left channel and vice versa in order to simulate the spatial cues that the ear and brain receive when listening to a set of loudspeakers placed in front of the listener.

The result is a more natural stereo image that can be especially appreciated in older rock and jazz records, where one instrument is often hard-panned to just one of the speakers.

Many people will find such records tiring to listen to using earphones and no crossfeed effect. Crossfeed has the following settings: Crossfeed.

Selects whether the crossfeed effect is to be enabled or not. Direct Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the direct path from a speaker to the corresponding ear is supposed to be decreased.

Cross Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the cross path from a speaker to the opposite ear is to be decreased.

High-Frequency Attenuation. How much the upper frequencies of the cross path audio will be dampened. Note that the total level of the higher frequencies will be a combination of both this setting and the Cross Gain setting.

High-Frequency Cutoff. Decides at which frequency the cross path audio will start to be cut by the amount described by the High-Frequency Attenuation setting.

Sound Settings 50 Most users will find the default settings to yield satisfactory results, but for the more adventurous user the settings can be fine-tuned to provide a virtual speaker placement suited to ones preference.

Beware that the crossfeed function is capable of making the audio distort if you choose settings which result in a too high output level.

Equalizer Figure 6. In contrast to non-parametric equalizers, a parametric EQ enables adjusting the center frequency, gain, and width of EQ bands separately.

The graphic below illustrates how the width of 10kHz band can be adjusted to cover a wider lower Q or narrower higher Q range of frequencies. Sound Settings the EQ allows you to control the sound much more carefully.

Note that the parameteric EQ bands will be applied in addition to any bass or treble tone controls. Note: A maximum of 10 EQ bands are possible on most devices, but using more than are required will waste battery and introduce additional rounding noise.

For best results, use the fewest number of bands required. For example, a cutoff frequency of 50 Hz will adjust only very low frequencies.

A cutoff frequency of Hz, on the other hand, will adjust a much wider range of bass frequencies. Positive numbers make the EQ band louder, while negative numbers make that EQ band quieter.

Higher values will add a small boost around the cutoff frequency that is almost always undesirable.

Bands Peaking filters. Peaking EQ filters boost or lower a frequency range centered at the centre frequency chosen. Graphic equalizers in home stereos are usually peaking filters.

Higher Q values will affect a narrower band of frequencies, while lower Q values will affect a wider band of frequencies. Band 9: High shelf filter.

The high shelf filter is adjusted the same way as the low shelf filter, except that it works on the high end of the frequency spectrum rather than the low end.

As a general guide, EQ band 0 should be used for low frequencies, EQ bands 1 through 8 should be used for mids, and EQ band 9 should be used for highs.

Enable EQ. This option controls whether the EQ is on or off. Graphical EQ. This option brings up a graphic EQ screen, which allows adjustment of each of the three parameters described above gain, centre frequency, and Q for each of the five EQ bands.

Lowers the highlighted parameter. Moves to the previous EQ band. Moves to the next EQ band. Toggles the cursor among the three parameters gain, centre frequency, Q for the selected EQ band Exits the graphic EQ screen.

Rewind Pre-cut. If too much positive gain is added through the graphical EQ, your music may distort. The Precut setting allows you to apply a global negative gain to decoded audio, cancelling out positive gain from the EQ.

This will prevent distortion when boosting certain frequency ranges, at the expense of making audio quieter. Alternatively, precut can be used with a flat EQ curve to implement a volume cap.

Note that precut is not applied if EQ is disabled. Simple EQ. This option provides an easier alternative for those who are daunted by all of the parameters that can be adjusted using the graphical EQ.

With the Simple EQ, the only parameter that can be adjusted is the gain. Advanced EQ. This sub menu provides options for adjusting the same parameters as the Graphical EQ.

The only difference is that the parameters are adjusted through textual menus rather than through a graphic interface. Save EQ Preset. This option saves the current EQ configuration in a.

Browse EQ Presets. Users unfamiliar with the operation of a parametric EQ may wish to use the presets instead of trying to configure the EQ, or use the presets for designing their own custom EQ settings.

Dithering This setting controls the dithering and noise shaping functionality of Rockbox. The simplest way to convert from one bit depth to another is simply discarding all the surplus bits.

This is the default behaviour, and adds distortion to the signal that will vary in character along with the desired sound. Dithering adds low-level noise to the signal prior to throwing away the surplus bits, which gives the resulting signal a uniform noise floor which is independent of the sig- The Rockbox manual version rUnversioned directory Samsung YH Chapter 6.

Sound Settings 53 nal. Most people find this noise preferable to the time-varying noise heard when not performing dithering.

After dithering, noise shaping is performed. This basically just pushes the dithering noise to the parts of the frequency spectrum humans cannot hear so easily.

This setting will be put to its best use when listening to dynamic music with frequently occuring quiet parts, classical music being a typical example.

It is worth noting that the effects of dithering and noise shaping are very subtle, and not easily noticable. Rockbox uses highpass triangular distribution noise as the dithering noise source, and a third order noise shaper.

Timestretch Enabling Timestretch allows you to change the playback speed without it affecting the pitch of the recording.

After enabling this feature and rebooting, you can access this via the Pitch Screen. This function is intended for speech playback and may significantly dilute your listening experience with more complex audio.

See section 4. Compressor The Compressor reduces, or compresses, the dynamic range of the audio signal. This makes the quieter and louder sections closer to the same volume level by progressively reducing the gain of louder signals.

When subsequently amplified, this has the effect of making the quieter sections louder while keeping the louder sections from clipping.

This allows listening to the quiet sections of dynamic material in noisy environments while preventing sudden loud sections from being overbearing.

There are several settings associated with the compressor. The first, and most important, is the Threshold. The threshold is the audio input level at which the compressor begins to act.

Any level louder than the threshold will be compressed to some extent. The maximum amount of compression, or the quietest level at which the compressor will operate, is dB.

The default of Off disables the compressor. The Makeup Gain setting has two options: Off and Auto. Off means that the compressed audio will not be amplified after compression.

The default of Auto will amplify the signal so that the loudest possible signal after compression will be just under the clipping limit.

This is desirable because the compressed signal without makeup gain is quieter than the input signal. Makeup Gain in Auto restores the signal to the maximum possible level and brings the quieter audio up with it.

This is what makes it possible to hear the quieter audio in noisy environments. The Ratio setting determines how aggressively the compressor reduces gain above the threshold.

For example, the setting means that for each two decibels of input signal above the threshold, the compressor will only allow the output to appear as one decibel.

The higher the ratio, the harder the signal is compressed. Sound Settings 54 Limit means essentially a ratio of infinity to one.

In this case, the output signal is not allowed to exceed the threshold at all. The Knee setting determines how abrupt the transition is from a non-compressed signal to a compressed signal.

Hard Knee means that the transition occurs precisely at the threshold. The Soft Knee setting smoothes the transition from plus or minus three decibels around the threshold.

The Attack Time setting sets the delay in milliseconds between the input signal exceeding the activation threshold and acting upon it.

The Release Time setting sets the recovery time after the signal is compressed. Release Time is the time for the gain to recover by 10 dB. Playback Settings 55 7.

Shuffle Turning shuffle on will cause Rockbox to randomly re-order the playlist. Thus, to shuffle all of the audio files on the player, you first need to create a playlist containing all of them.

For more information on creating playlists refer to section 4. Repeat Configures settings related to repeating of directories or playlists.

The current playlist will not repeat when it is finished. Note: If you have the Auto-Change Directory option set to Yes, Rockbox will move on to the next directory on your hard drive.

If the Auto-Change Directory option is set to No, playback will stop when the current directory or playlist is finished.

The current playlist will repeat when it is finished. Repeat one track over and over. When the current playlist has finished playing, it will be shuffled and then repeated.

Repeats between two user defined points within a track, typically used by musicians when attempting to learn a piece of music.

This option is more complicated to use than the others as the player must first be placed into A-B repeat mode and then the start and end points defined.

Playback Settings 56 7. Play Selected First This setting controls what happens when you select a file for playback while shuffle mode is on.

If the Play Selected First setting is Yes, the file you selected will be played first. If this setting is No, a random file in the directory will be played first.

Anti-Skip Buffer This setting controls how early Rockbox starts refilling the music buffer from the hard drive when playing.

A longer Anti-Skip Buffer helps prevent skips in music playback if Rockbox has trouble reading from the disk.

This can happen if the player is knocked, shaken or jogged heavily while Rockbox is trying to read the hard drive. The anti-skip buffer can be set to various values between 5 seconds and 10 minutes.

Note: Having a large anti-skip buffer tends to use more power, and may reduce your battery life. It is recommended to always use the lowest possible setting that allows correct and continuous playback.

Party Mode Enables unstoppable music playback. When new songs are selected, they are queued at the end of the current dynamic playlist instead of being played immediately.

Pausing and stopping playback is disabled as well as skipping songs and launching plugins. Crossfade This section controls the behavior of the crossfader.

The crossfader, when enabled, smoothly fades one track into the next. This can occur in two situations: an automatic track change or a manual track skip.

Playback Settings the track, moving to the next track in the playlist without user intervention. A manual track skip goes to the next track immediately when the appropriate button is pressed.

Options for crossfade settings are: Enable Crossfade. If set to Off, crossfade is disabled and all track changes are gapless.

If set to Automatic Track Change Only, crossfade occurs for automatic track changes, but not for manual track skips. The next setting, Manual Track Skip Only, is the opposite: tracks will only crossfade when manually skipped.

If set to Shuffle, crossfade is enabled for all track changes, automatic or manual, when the shuffle feature is set to Yes, but disabled otherwise.

If set to Shuffle or Manual Track Skip then crossfade will be active either when shuffle is set to Yes or the track is manually skipped.

If set to Always, tracks will always crossfade into one another. Fade In Delay. Fade In Duration. The length of time, in seconds, that it takes your music to fade in once the Fade In Delay has ended.

Fade Out Delay. Fade Out Duration. The length of time, in seconds, that it takes your music to fade out once the Fade Out Delay has ended.

Fade Out Mode. If set to Crossfade, one song will fade out and the next song will simultaneously fade in. If set to Mix, the ending song will not fade out at all, and will continue to play as normal until its end with the starting song fading in from under it.

Mix mode is not used for manual track skips, even if it is selected here. In this case, the Fade In Delay is reduced to eliminate the gap.

The graphic below illustrates how the different settings work in practice. Playback Settings 58 7. Replaygain This allows you to control the replaygain function.

The purpose of replaygain is to adjust the volume of the music played so that all songs or albums, depending on your settings have the same apparent volume.

This prevents sudden changes in volume when changing between songs recorded at different volume levels. For replaygain to work, the songs must have been processed by a program that adds replaygain information to the ID3 tags or Vorbis tags.

Options for replaygain are: Replaygain Type. Choose the type of replaygain to apply: Album Gain. Maintain a constant volume level between albums, but keep any intentional volume variations between songs in an album.

If album gain value is not available, uses track gain information. Track Gain. Maintain a constant volume level between tracks.

If track gain value is not available, no replaygain is applied. Track Gain If Shuffling. Maintains a constant volume between tracks if Shuffle is set to Yes.

Reverts to album mode if Shuffle is set to No. Do not process replaygain information, i. Prevent Clipping.

If a song would clip during playback, the volume is lowered for that song. Replaygain information is needed for this to work. Playback Settings 59 Pre-amp.

This allows you to adjust the volume when replaygain is applied. Replaygain often lowers the volume, sometimes quite much, so here you can compensate for that.

Please note that a large positive pre-amp setting can cause clipping, unless prevent clipping is enabled.

Track Skip Beep Controls the volume of the beep that is heard when skipping forward or backward between tracks. The beep is disabled when set to Off.

Auto-Change Directory Control what Rockbox does when it reaches the end of a directory. If Auto-Change Directory is set to No, playback will stop at the end of the current playlist.

Using the Random feature requires you to first generate a folder list via the Random Folder Advance Configuration plugin see section Note: This feature only works when songs have been played from the file browser.

Using it with the database may cause unexpected behaviour. Constrain Auto-Change If enabled and you have set Start File Browser Here to a directory other than root, Auto-Change Directory will be constrained to the directory you have chosen and those below it.

This service was formerly known as Audioscrobbler. The log-file is called. Playback Settings 60 7. Cuesheet Support Enables reading of cuesheet files for played tracks.

If a cuesheet is found for a track, track markers are displayed on the progressbar and it is possible to skip between the tracks within the cuesheet.

Also the information found in the cuesheet file will replace the information from the ID3 tags.

Cuesheet files should have the same file name as the audio file they reference, except with the extension. This file can either reside in the same directory as the audio file checked first , or within the.

The contents of a cuesheet file can also be embedded within the metadata of an audio file. Skip Length Designed to speed up navigation when listening to long audio tracks, Skip Length changes the behaviour of the Rewind and Forward buttons so that they skip by a given time instead of skipping to a new track.

The Skip to Outro option changes the behaviour so that the buttons skip to just before the end of the track, so that the last few seconds are played before the next track.

Prevent Track Skipping If this option is enabled, the ability to manually skip tracks is disabled in order to avoid accidental track skips.

It does not prevent changing tracks if a track ends, which can be achieved by combining this option with Repeat set to One 7.

Rewind Before Resume When restarting a track or a bookmark, a short rewind can be done before the playback is started.

This can be useful when listening to speech material, to help remember what was being said just before playback was stopped.

The size of the rewind can be set to various values between 0 off and 60 seconds. Note: This option does not apply to resuming a paused track.

Use the next option for rewinding on pause. Note: The actual rewind distance may differ a little from the requested value, depending on the file in question.

Playback Settings 61 7. Rewind on Pause This option rewinds the current track by a small amount whenever it is paused not stopped. The amount to rewind can be set between 0 and 15 seconds.

Frequency This is the sampling frequency used for the rockbox playback engine. Audio at a different sampling rate will be converted to this sampling rate prior to mixing using a cubic Hermite polynomial resampler.

Note: For best quality and battery life, select the sampling rate used by your audio. This is typically Note: Opus files are always 48kHz. General Settings Figure 8.

Playlist The Playlist sub menu allows you to configure settings related to playlists. Recursively Insert Directories. If set to On, then when a directory is inserted or queued into a dynamic playlist, all subdirectories will also be inserted.

If set to Ask, Rockbox will prompt the user about whether to include sub-directories. Warn When Erasing Dynamic Playlist. If set to Yes, Rockbox will provide a warning if the user attempts to take an action that will cause Rockbox to erase the current dynamic playlist.

Sort Case Sensitive. If this option is set to Yes, all files that start with upper case letters will be listed first, followed by all files that begin with lower case letters.

If this option is set to NO, then case will be ignored when sorting files. Sort Directories. This option controls how Rockbox sorts directories.

The default is to sort them alphabetically. By date sorts them with the oldest directory first. By newest date sorts them with the newest directory first.

Sort Files. This option controls how Rockbox sorts files. All of the options for Sort Directories are available in this option.

In addition, there is a By type option which sorts files alphabetically by their type such as. General Settings Interpret numbers when sorting.

It combines consecutive digits to a number used for sorting, taking leading zeros into account. As digits disables this algorithm, and causes every digit to be compared separately.

The following table demonstrates the two sorting methods. As whole numbers As digits 03 Jackson. This option controls which files are displayed in the File Browser.

The File Browser displays all files and directories. Extensions are shown. No files or directories are hidden. The File Browser displays all directories and files supported by Rockbox see section A.

Files and directories starting with. The File Browser displays only directories, playlists and the supported audio file formats. Extensions are stripped.

The File Browser displays only directories and playlists, for simplified navigation. Show Filename Extensions.

This option controls how file extensions are shown in the File Browser. The file extensions are never shown. The file extensions are always shown.

Only unknown types. Only the extensions of unknown filetypes are shown. Only when viewing all types. Only show file extensions when Show Files is set to All.

Follow Playlist. This option determines what directory the File Browser displays first. If Follow Playlist is set to Yes, when you enter the File Browser from the WPS, you will find yourself in the same directory as the currently playing file.

Show Path. If this setting is set to Full Path the full path to the current directory will be displayed on the first line in the File Browser. If set to Current Directory Only only the name of the current directory will be displayed.

This has a similar effect on the Database browser. If set to Current Directory Only or Full Path, then the title of each menu will be displayed on the first line in the Database Browser.

Database This sub menu allows you to configure the database. Display LCD Settings. This sub menu contains settings that relate to the display of the player.

The amount of time the backlight shines after a key press. If set to Off, the backlight will not light when a button is pressed.

If set to On, the backlight will never shut off. If set to a time 1 to 90 seconds , the backlight will stay lit for that amount of time after a button press.

Backlight While Plugged In. This setting is equivalent to the Backlight setting except it applies when the player is plugged into the charger.

Backlight on Hold. This setting controls the behavior of the backlight when the Hold switch is toggled. If set to Normal the backlight will behave as usual.

If set to Off the backlight will be turned off immediately when the Hold switch is engaged and if set to On the backlight will be turned on and stay on while the Hold switch is engaged.

Caption Backlight. This option turns on the backlight a number of seconds before the start of a new track, and keeps it on for the same number of seconds after the beginning so that the display can be read to see song information.

The amount of time is determined by the value of the backlight timeout setting, but is no less than 5 seconds. First Keypress Enables Backlight Only.

With this option enabled the first keypress while the backlight is turned off will only turn the backlight on without having any other effect.

When disabled the first keypress will also perform its appropriate action. Changes the contrast of your LCD display. Warning: Setting the contrast too dark or too light can make it hard to find The Rockbox manual version rUnversioned directory Samsung YH 65 Chapter 8.

General Settings this menu option again! LCD Mode. This setting lets you invert the colours of the display. Sie erläutert auch, wie und zu welchem Zweck das geschieht.

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Only visible if a file or directory name is on the clipboard. When selected it will move or copy the clipboard to the current directory.

Deletes the currently selected file. This option applies only to files, and not to directories. Rockbox will ask for confirmation before deleting a file.

Press Right to confirm deletion or any other key to cancel. Delete Directory. Deletes the currently selected directory and all of the files and subdirectories it may contain.

Deleted directories cannot be recovered. Use this feature with caution! Set As Backdrop. Set the selected bmp file as background image.

The bitmaps need to meet the conditions explained in section Open with. Runs a viewer plugin on the file. Normally, when a file is selected in Rockbox, Rockbox automatically detects the file type and runs the appropriate plugin.

The Open With function can be used to override the default action and select a viewer by hand. For example, this function can be used to view a text file even if the file has a non-standard extension i.

See section Create Directory. Create a new directory in the current directory on the disk. Shows properties such as size and the time and date of the last modification for the selected file.

If used on a directory, the number of files and subdirectories will be shown, as well as the total size. Set As Recording Directory.

Save recordings in the selected directory. Start File Browser Here. This option allows users to set the currently selected directory as the default start directory for the file browser.

This option is not available for files. Browsing and playing enabled, the directories returned will be constrained to the directory you have chosen here and those below it.

See section 7. Adds a link to the selected item in the shortcuts. If the file does not already exist it will be created in the root directory.

Note that if you create a shortcut to a file, Rockbox will not open it upon selecting, but simply bring you to its location in the File Browser.

Virtual Keyboard Figure 4. The virtual keyboard can be easily changed by making a text file with the required layout.

More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at LoadableKeyboardLayouts.

Also you can switch to Morse code input mode by changing the Use Morse Code Input setting or by pressing Long Forward in the virtual keyboard.

Delete the character before the line cursor. If you move out of the picker area you get to the line edit mode. Play Insert the selected keyboard letter at the current line cursor position.

Forward Exit the virtual keyboard and save any changes. Long Forward Toggle keyboard input mode and Morse code input mode. Play Tap to select a character in Morse code input mode.

Database 4. Introduction This chapter describes the Rockbox music database system. The criteria the database uses to sort the songs can be completely customised.

More information on how to achieve this can be found on the Rockbox website at DataBase. Initializing the Database The first time you use the database, Rockbox will scan your disk for audio files.

This can take quite a while depending on the number of files on your player. This scan happens in the background, so you can choose to return to the Main Menu and continue to listen to music.

If you shut down your player, the scan will continue next time you turn it on. After the scan is finished you may be prompted to restart your player before you can use the database.

Browsing and playing Ignoring Directories During Database Initialization You may have directories on your player whose contents should not be added to the database.

Placing a file named database. This will speed up the database initialization. The files in that directory and its subdirectories will be scanned and added to the database.

The Database Menu Auto Update If Auto update is set to on, each time the player boots, the database will automatically be updated.

Warning: Initialize Now removes all database files removing runtimedb data also and rebuilds the database from scratch. Update Now Update now causes the database to detect new and deleted files Note: Unlike the Auto Update function, Update Now will update the database regardless of whether the Directory Cache is enabled.

Thus, an update using Update now may take a long time. Unlike Initialize Now, the Update Now function does not remove runtime database information.

Gather Runtime Data When enabled, rockbox will record how often and how long a track is being played, when it was last played and its rating.

This information can be displayed in the WPS and is used in the database browser to, for example, show the most played, unplayed and most recently played tracks.

This is needed when database structures change, because new code cannot read old database code. Import Modifications.

If Auto Update is enabled this is performed automatically when the database is initialized. To use the database, go to the Main Menu and select Database.

There is no option to turn off database completely. If you do not want to use it just do not do the initial build of the database and do not load it to RAM.

Refer to section D page for details on how to change the display of the WPS. In contrast to all other items, the status bar is always at the top of the screen.

Go to beginning of track, or if pressed while in the first seconds of a track, go to the previous track. Rewind in track. Go to the next track. Fast forward in track.

Stop playback. Enter Main Menu. Switch to the Quick Screen see section 5. Show current Playlist. Skip to the next directory.

Peak Meter The peak meter can be displayed on the While Playing Screen and consists of several indicators.

For a picture of the peak meter, please see the While Recording Screen in section 5. The bar: This is the wide horizontal bar.

It represents the current volume value. The peak indicator: This is a little vertical line at the right end of the bar. It indicates the peak volume value that occurred recently.

The clip indicator: This is a little black block that is displayed at the very right of the scale when an overflow occurs. It usually does not show up during normal playback unless you play an audio file that is distorted heavily.

Browsing and playing while recording, your recording will sound distorted. You should lower the gain. Note: Note that the clip detection is not very precise.

Clipping might occur without being indicated. The scale: Between the indicators of the right and left channel there are little dots.

These dots represent important volume values. Playlist The Playlist submenu allows you to view, save, search and reshuffle the current playlist.

These and other operations are detailed in section 4. In this menu, you can find the Playlist Viewer Settings. Playlist Viewer Settings Show Icons.

This toggles display of the icon for the currently selected playlist entry and the icon for moving a playlist entry Show Indices.

This toggles display of the line numbering for the playlist Track Display. This toggles between filename only and full path for playlist entries Playlist catalogue View catalogue.

This lists all playlists that are part of the Playlist catalogue. You can load a new playlist directly from this list.

Add to playlist. Adds the currently playing file to a playlist. Select the playlist you want the file to be added to and it will get appended to that playlist.

Add to new playlist. Similar to the previous entry this will add the currently playing track to a playlist. You need to enter a name for the new playlist first.

Browsing and playing Sound Settings This is a shortcut to the Sound Settings Menu, where you can configure volume, bass, treble, and other settings affecting the sound of your music.

See section 6 page 47 for more information. Playback Settings This is a shortcut to the Playback Settings Menu, where you can configure shuffle, repeat, party mode, skip length and other settings affecting the playback of your music.

Rating The menu entry is only shown if Gather Runtime Information is enabled. The value wraps at Bookmarks This allows you to create a bookmark in the currently-playing track.

Show Track Info Figure 4. This info is known as meta data and is stored in audio file formats to keep information on artist, album etc.

Open With Browsing and playing Delete Delete the currently playing file. The file will be deleted but the playback of the file will not stop immediately.

Instead, the part of the file that has already been buffered i. This may even be the whole track. Pitch The Pitch Screen allows you to change the rate of playback i.

The rate can be changed in two modes: procentual and semitone. Initially, procentual mode is active. This allows you to change the playback speed without affecting the pitch, and vice versa.

In timestretch mode there are separate displays for pitch and speed, and each can be altered independently.

The value of the rate, pitch and speed is not persistent, i. However, the rate, pitch and speed information will be stored in any bookmarks you may create see section 8.

Key Action Forward Toggle pitch changing mode cycle through all available modes. Leave the Pitch Screen. Working with Playlists 4. Playlist terminology Some common terms that are used in Rockbox when referring to playlists: Directory.

A playlist! One of the keys to getting the most out of Rockbox is understanding that Rockbox always considers the song that it is playing to be part of a playlist, and in some situations, Rockbox will create a playlist automatically.

For example, if you are playing the contents of a directory, Rockbox will automatically create a playlist containing all songs in it.

This means that just about anything that is described in this chapter with respect to playlists also applies to directories.

Dynamic playlist. In Rockbox, to Insert an item into a playlist means putting an item into a playlist and leaving it there, even after it is played.

As you will see later in this chapter, Rockbox can Insert into a playlist in several places. In Rockbox, to Queue a song means to put the song into a playlist and then to remove the song from the playlist once it has been played.

The only difference between Insert and Queue is that the Queue option removes the song from the playlist once it has been played, and the Insert option does not.

Creating playlists Rockbox can create playlists in four different ways. Note: If you already have created a dynamic playlist, playing a new song will erase the current dynamic playlist and create a new one.

If you want to add a song to the current playlist rather than erasing the current playlist, see the section below on how to add music to a playlist.

By using Insert and Queue functions If playback is stopped, the Insert and Queue functions can be used as described in 4.

This will erase any dynamic playlist. Browsing and playing 36 By using the Playlist catalogue The Playlist catalogue makes it possible to modify and create playlists that are not currently playing.

To do this select Playlist catalogue in the Context Menu. There you will have two choices, Add to playlist adds the selected track or directory to an existing playlist and Add to a new playlist creates a new playlist containing the selected track or directory.

It is however possible to move existing playlists there see section 4. By using the Main Menu To create a playlist containing all music on your player, you can use the Create Playlist command in the Playlists menu found in the Main Menu.

The created playlist will be named root. Adding music to playlists Adding music to a dynamic playlist Figure 4. If there is no music currently playing, Rockbox will create a new dynamic playlist and put the selected track s into it.

If there is music currently playing, Rockbox will put the selected track s into the current playlist. The place in which the newly selected tracks are added to the playlist is determined by the following options: Insert.

Add track s immediately after any tracks added via the most recent Insert operation. If no tracks have yet been added via an Insert, new tracks will be added immediately after the current playing track.

If playback is stopped a new dynamic playlist will get created with the selected tracks. Browsing and playing Insert Next. Add track s immediately after current playing track, no matter what else has been inserted.

Insert Last. Add track s to end of playlist. Insert Shuffled. Add track s to the playlist in a random order. Insert Last Shuffled. Add tracks in a random order to the end of the playlist.

Queue is the same as Insert except queued tracks are deleted immediately from the playlist after they have been played.

Also, queued tracks are not saved to the playlist file see section 5. Queue Next. Queue track s immediately after current playing track.

Queue Last. Queue track s at end of playlist. Queue Shuffled. Queue track s in a random order. Queue Last Shuffled. Queue tracks in a random order at the end of the playlist.

Play Next. Replaces all but the current playing track with track s. Current playing track is queued. The Playlist Submenu can be used to add either single tracks or entire directories to a playlist.

If the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a single track, it will put only that track into the playlist. On the other hand, if the Playlist Submenu is invoked on a directory, Rockbox adds all of the tracks in that directory to the playlist.

Note: You can control whether or not Rockbox includes the contents of subdirectories when adding an entire directory to a playlist.

Dynamic playlists are saved so resume will restore them exactly as they were before shutdown. Modifying playlists Reshuffling Reshuffling the current playlist is easily done from the Playlist sub menu in the WPS, just select Reshuffle.

Once in the Playlist Viewer open the context menu on the track you want to move or remove. If you want to move the track, select Move in the context menu and then move the blinking cursor to the place where you want the track to be moved and confirm with Right.

To remove a track, simply select Remove in the context menu. Either method will bring you to the Virtual Keyboard see section 4.

Loading saved playlists Through the File Browser Playlist files, like regular music tracks, can be selected through the File Browser. When loading a playlist from disk it will replace the current dynamic playlist.

It can be used like the File Browser. The assigned function will launch with reference to the current file or directory, if applicable.

Each screen has its own assignment. If there is no assignment for a given screen, the hotkey is ignored. The hotkey assignments are changed in the Hotkey menu see section 8.

The Main Menu 5. Introducing the Main Menu Figure 5. This is the first screen you will see when starting Rockbox. All settings are stored on the unit.

However, Rockbox does not access the hard disk solely for the purpose of saving settings. Instead, Rockbox will save settings when it accesses the hard disk the next time, for example when refilling the music buffer or navigating through the File Browser.

Changes to settings may therefore not be saved unless the player is shut down safely see section 3. Inside a setting, increase the value or choose next option.

Select the previous option in the menu. Inside a setting,decrease the value or choose previous option. Select option. Exit menu or setting, or move to parent menu.

Recent Bookmarks Figure 5. Note: Bookmarking only works when tracks are launched from the file browser, and does not currently work for tracks launched via the database.

In addition, they do not currently work with dynamic playlists. Select the previous bookmark. Resume from the selected bookmark.

Exit Recent Bookmark menu. Delete the currently selected bookmark. Enter the context menu for the selected bookmark. There are two options in the context menu: Resume will commence playback of the currently selected bookmark entry.

Delete will remove the currently selected bookmark entry from the list. This entry is not shown in the Main Menu when the option is off the default setting.

Files Browse the files on your player see section 4. Database Browse by the meta-data in your audio files see section 4.

Settings The Settings menu allows you to set or adjust many parameters that affect the way your player works. There are many submenus for different parameter areas.

Every time you are setting a value of a parameter, and that value is selected from a list of some predefined available values, you can press Long Right, and the selection cursor will jump to the default value for the parameter.

You can then confirm or cancel the value. This is useful if you have changed the value of the parameter from the default to some other value and would like to restore the default value.

Sound Settings The Sound Settings menu offers a selection of sound properties you may change to customise your listening experience.

The details of this menu are covered in section 6 page Playback Settings The Playback Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to audio playback.

The details of this menu are covered in section 7 page General Settings The General Settings menu allows you to customise the way Rockbox looks and the way it plays music.

The details of this menu are covered in section 8 page Theme Settings The Theme Settings menu contains options that control the visual appearance of Rockbox.

The details of this menu are covered in section 9 page Recording Settings The Recording Settings menu allows you to configure settings related to recording.

The details of this menu are covered in detail in section 10 page The Main Menu 42 5. Manage Settings The Manage Settings option allows the saving and re-loading of user configuration settings, browsing the hard drive for alternate firmwares, and finally resetting your player back to initial configuration.

The details of this menu are covered in section Recording 5. While Recording Screen Figure 5. The Recording Screen shows the time elapsed and the size of the file being recorded.

A peak meter is present to allow you set gain correctly. There is also a volume setting, this will only affect the output level of the player and does not affect the recorded sound.

If enabled in the peak meter settings, a counter in front of the peak meters shows the number of times the clip indicator was activated during recording.

The counter is reset to zero when starting a new recording. Note: When you start a recording, the hard disk will spin up. This will cause the peak meters to freeze in the process.

This is expected behaviour, and nothing to worry about. The recording continues during the spin up. The frequency and channels settings are shown in the status bar.

Adjust selected setting. Start recording. While recording: pause recording press again to continue. Exit Recording Screen.

While recording: Stop recording. While recording: close the current file and open a new one. Open Recording Settings see section 10 page Long Rewind or Rec Forward Rewind 5.

Playlists This menu allows you to work with playlists. Playlists can be created in three ways. Playing a file in a directory causes all the files in it to be placed in a playlist.

Playlists can be created manually by either using the Context Menu see section 4. Both automatically and manually created playlists can be edited using this menu.

Create Playlist: Rockbox will create a playlist with all tracks in the current directory and all sub-directories. View Current Playlist: Displays the contents of the playlist currently stored in memory.

Save Current Playlist: Saves the current dynamic playlist, excluding queued tracks, to the specified file. If no path is provided then playlist is saved to the current directory.

View Catalogue: Provides a simple interface to maintain several playlists see section 4. Plugins With this option you can load and run various plugins that have been written for Rockbox.

There are a wide variety of these supplied with Rockbox, including several games, some impressive demos and a number of utilities.

A detailed description of the different plugins is to be found in section 12 page System Rockbox Info: Displays some basic system information.

This is, from top to bottom, the amount of memory Rockbox has available for storing music the buffer. The battery status.

Hard disk size and the amount of free space on the disk. Credits: Display the list of contributors.

Running Time: Shows the runtime of your player in hours, minutes and seconds. Running Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you either disconnected it from charging in Rockbox or manually reset this item.

A manual reset is done through pressing any button, followed by pressing Right. Top Time: This item shows the cumulative overall runtime of your player since you last manually reset this item.

Debug Keep Out! It shows hardware, disk, battery status and other technical information. Warning: It is not recommended that users access this menu unless instructed to do so in the course of fixing a problem with Rockbox.

If you think you have messed up your settings by use of this menu please try to reset all settings before asking for help.

Quick Screen Although the Quick Screen is accessible from nearly everywhere, not just the Main Menu, it is worth mentioning here.

It allows rapid access to your four favourite settings. The default settings are Shuffle section 7 page 55 , Repeat section 7 page 55 and the Show Files section 8.

To change the options, navigate through the menus to the setting you want to add and press Long Right. In the menu which appears you will be given options to place the setting on the Quick Screen.

The direction buttons will modify the individual setting values as indicated by the arrow icons. Please note that the settings at opposite sides of the screen cycle through the available options in opposite directions.

Therefore if you select the same setting at e. Shortcuts This menu item is a container for user defined shortcuts to files, folders or settings.

The file shortcuts. A reboot is needed for manual changes to shortcuts. Shortcuts can be manually removed by selecting the one you wish to remove and pressing Long Right.

Sound Settings Figure 6. Volume This setting adjusts the volume of your music. Like most professional audio gear and many consumer audio products, Rockbox uses a decibel scale where 0 dB is a reference that indicates the maximum volume that the player can produce without possible distortion clipping.

All values lower than this reference will be negative and yield a progressively softer volume. Values higher than 0 dB are available and can be used to raise the volume more than would otherwise be possible.

These volume levels will ordinarily lead to distorted sound, but might work nicely for music that has an otherwise low volume level.

The volume can be adjusted from a minimum of dB to a maximum of 0 dB. Bass This setting emphasises or suppresses the lower bass frequencies in the sound.

A value of 0 dB means that bass sounds are unaltered flat response. The minimum setting is dB and the maximum is 24 dB. Volume Limit This setting adjusts the maximum volume of your music.

The setting is by default set to the maximum volume which equals to no limit. Sound Settings 48 from the list and the maximum volume will be limited to the selected value all over the system.

Treble This setting emphasises or suppresses the higher treble frequencies in the sound. A value of 0 dB means that treble sounds are unaltered flat response.

Balance This setting controls the balance between the left and right channels. The default, 0, means that the left and right outputs are equal in volume.

Negative numbers increase the volume of the left channel relative to the right, positive numbers increase the volume of the right channel relative to the left.

Channels A stereo audio signal consists of two channels, left and right. The Channels setting determines if these channels are to be combined in any way, and if so, in what manner they will be combined.

Available options are: Stereo. Leave the audio signal unmodified. Combine both channels and send the resulting signal to both stereo channels, resulting in a monophonic output.

Allows you to manually specify a stereo width with the Stereo Width setting described later in this chapter.

Mono Left. Plays the left channel in both stereo channels. Mono Right. Plays the right channel in both stereo channels.

Removes all sound that is common to both channels. Since most music is recorded with vocals being equally present in both channels to make the singer sound centrally placed, this often but not always has the effect of removing the voice track from a song.

This setting also very often has other undesirable effects on the sound. Sound Settings of one channel into the other. This has the effect of widening the stereo field.

Crossfeed Crossfeed attempts to make the experience of listening to music on headphones more similar to listening to music with stereo speakers.

When you listen to music through speakers, each ear will hear sound originating from both speakers. However, the sound from the left speaker reaches your right ear slightly later than it does your left ear, and vice versa.

The human ear and brain together are very good at interpreting the time differences between direct sounds and reflected sounds and using that information to identify the direction that the sound is coming from.

On the other hand, when listening to headphones, each ear hears only the stereo channel corresponding to it. The left ear hears only the left channel and the right ear hears only the right channel.

The result is that sound from headphones does not provide the same spatial cues to your ear and brain as speakers, and might for that reason sound unnatural to some listeners.

The crossfeed function uses an algorithm to feed a delayed and filtered portion of the signal from the right channel into the left channel and vice versa in order to simulate the spatial cues that the ear and brain receive when listening to a set of loudspeakers placed in front of the listener.

The result is a more natural stereo image that can be especially appreciated in older rock and jazz records, where one instrument is often hard-panned to just one of the speakers.

Many people will find such records tiring to listen to using earphones and no crossfeed effect. Crossfeed has the following settings: Crossfeed.

Selects whether the crossfeed effect is to be enabled or not. Direct Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the direct path from a speaker to the corresponding ear is supposed to be decreased.

Cross Gain. How much the level of the audio that travels the cross path from a speaker to the opposite ear is to be decreased. High-Frequency Attenuation.

How much the upper frequencies of the cross path audio will be dampened. Note that the total level of the higher frequencies will be a combination of both this setting and the Cross Gain setting.

High-Frequency Cutoff. Decides at which frequency the cross path audio will start to be cut by the amount described by the High-Frequency Attenuation setting.

Sound Settings 50 Most users will find the default settings to yield satisfactory results, but for the more adventurous user the settings can be fine-tuned to provide a virtual speaker placement suited to ones preference.

Beware that the crossfeed function is capable of making the audio distort if you choose settings which result in a too high output level.

Equalizer Figure 6. In contrast to non-parametric equalizers, a parametric EQ enables adjusting the center frequency, gain, and width of EQ bands separately.

The graphic below illustrates how the width of 10kHz band can be adjusted to cover a wider lower Q or narrower higher Q range of frequencies.

Sound Settings the EQ allows you to control the sound much more carefully. Note that the parameteric EQ bands will be applied in addition to any bass or treble tone controls.

Note: A maximum of 10 EQ bands are possible on most devices, but using more than are required will waste battery and introduce additional rounding noise.

For best results, use the fewest number of bands required. For example, a cutoff frequency of 50 Hz will adjust only very low frequencies. A cutoff frequency of Hz, on the other hand, will adjust a much wider range of bass frequencies.

Positive numbers make the EQ band louder, while negative numbers make that EQ band quieter. Higher values will add a small boost around the cutoff frequency that is almost always undesirable.

Bands Peaking filters. Peaking EQ filters boost or lower a frequency range centered at the centre frequency chosen. Graphic equalizers in home stereos are usually peaking filters.

Higher Q values will affect a narrower band of frequencies, while lower Q values will affect a wider band of frequencies. Band 9: High shelf filter.

The high shelf filter is adjusted the same way as the low shelf filter, except that it works on the high end of the frequency spectrum rather than the low end.

As a general guide, EQ band 0 should be used for low frequencies, EQ bands 1 through 8 should be used for mids, and EQ band 9 should be used for highs.

Enable EQ. This option controls whether the EQ is on or off. Graphical EQ. This option brings up a graphic EQ screen, which allows adjustment of each of the three parameters described above gain, centre frequency, and Q for each of the five EQ bands.

Lowers the highlighted parameter. Moves to the previous EQ band. Moves to the next EQ band. Toggles the cursor among the three parameters gain, centre frequency, Q for the selected EQ band Exits the graphic EQ screen.

Rewind Pre-cut. If too much positive gain is added through the graphical EQ, your music may distort. The Precut setting allows you to apply a global negative gain to decoded audio, cancelling out positive gain from the EQ.

This will prevent distortion when boosting certain frequency ranges, at the expense of making audio quieter. Alternatively, precut can be used with a flat EQ curve to implement a volume cap.

Note that precut is not applied if EQ is disabled. Simple EQ. This option provides an easier alternative for those who are daunted by all of the parameters that can be adjusted using the graphical EQ.

With the Simple EQ, the only parameter that can be adjusted is the gain. Advanced EQ. This sub menu provides options for adjusting the same parameters as the Graphical EQ.

The only difference is that the parameters are adjusted through textual menus rather than through a graphic interface. Save EQ Preset.

This option saves the current EQ configuration in a. Browse EQ Presets. Users unfamiliar with the operation of a parametric EQ may wish to use the presets instead of trying to configure the EQ, or use the presets for designing their own custom EQ settings.

Dithering This setting controls the dithering and noise shaping functionality of Rockbox. The simplest way to convert from one bit depth to another is simply discarding all the surplus bits.

This is the default behaviour, and adds distortion to the signal that will vary in character along with the desired sound.

Dithering adds low-level noise to the signal prior to throwing away the surplus bits, which gives the resulting signal a uniform noise floor which is independent of the sig- The Rockbox manual version rUnversioned directory Samsung YH Chapter 6.

Sound Settings 53 nal. Most people find this noise preferable to the time-varying noise heard when not performing dithering. After dithering, noise shaping is performed.

This basically just pushes the dithering noise to the parts of the frequency spectrum humans cannot hear so easily.

This setting will be put to its best use when listening to dynamic music with frequently occuring quiet parts, classical music being a typical example.

It is worth noting that the effects of dithering and noise shaping are very subtle, and not easily noticable. Rockbox uses highpass triangular distribution noise as the dithering noise source, and a third order noise shaper.

Timestretch Enabling Timestretch allows you to change the playback speed without it affecting the pitch of the recording. After enabling this feature and rebooting, you can access this via the Pitch Screen.

This function is intended for speech playback and may significantly dilute your listening experience with more complex audio. See section 4.

Compressor The Compressor reduces, or compresses, the dynamic range of the audio signal. This makes the quieter and louder sections closer to the same volume level by progressively reducing the gain of louder signals.

When subsequently amplified, this has the effect of making the quieter sections louder while keeping the louder sections from clipping.

This allows listening to the quiet sections of dynamic material in noisy environments while preventing sudden loud sections from being overbearing.

There are several settings associated with the compressor. The first, and most important, is the Threshold. The threshold is the audio input level at which the compressor begins to act.

Any level louder than the threshold will be compressed to some extent. The maximum amount of compression, or the quietest level at which the compressor will operate, is dB.

The default of Off disables the compressor. The Makeup Gain setting has two options: Off and Auto. Off means that the compressed audio will not be amplified after compression.

The default of Auto will amplify the signal so that the loudest possible signal after compression will be just under the clipping limit.

This is desirable because the compressed signal without makeup gain is quieter than the input signal. Makeup Gain in Auto restores the signal to the maximum possible level and brings the quieter audio up with it.

This is what makes it possible to hear the quieter audio in noisy environments. The Ratio setting determines how aggressively the compressor reduces gain above the threshold.

For example, the setting means that for each two decibels of input signal above the threshold, the compressor will only allow the output to appear as one decibel.

The higher the ratio, the harder the signal is compressed. Sound Settings 54 Limit means essentially a ratio of infinity to one.

In this case, the output signal is not allowed to exceed the threshold at all. The Knee setting determines how abrupt the transition is from a non-compressed signal to a compressed signal.

Hard Knee means that the transition occurs precisely at the threshold. The Soft Knee setting smoothes the transition from plus or minus three decibels around the threshold.

The Attack Time setting sets the delay in milliseconds between the input signal exceeding the activation threshold and acting upon it.

The Release Time setting sets the recovery time after the signal is compressed. Release Time is the time for the gain to recover by 10 dB.

Playback Settings 55 7. Shuffle Turning shuffle on will cause Rockbox to randomly re-order the playlist.

Thus, to shuffle all of the audio files on the player, you first need to create a playlist containing all of them. For more information on creating playlists refer to section 4.

Repeat Configures settings related to repeating of directories or playlists. The current playlist will not repeat when it is finished.

Note: If you have the Auto-Change Directory option set to Yes, Rockbox will move on to the next directory on your hard drive.

If the Auto-Change Directory option is set to No, playback will stop when the current directory or playlist is finished.

The current playlist will repeat when it is finished. Repeat one track over and over. When the current playlist has finished playing, it will be shuffled and then repeated.

Repeats between two user defined points within a track, typically used by musicians when attempting to learn a piece of music.

This option is more complicated to use than the others as the player must first be placed into A-B repeat mode and then the start and end points defined.

Playback Settings 56 7. Play Selected First This setting controls what happens when you select a file for playback while shuffle mode is on.

If the Play Selected First setting is Yes, the file you selected will be played first. If this setting is No, a random file in the directory will be played first.

Anti-Skip Buffer This setting controls how early Rockbox starts refilling the music buffer from the hard drive when playing. A longer Anti-Skip Buffer helps prevent skips in music playback if Rockbox has trouble reading from the disk.

This can happen if the player is knocked, shaken or jogged heavily while Rockbox is trying to read the hard drive. The anti-skip buffer can be set to various values between 5 seconds and 10 minutes.

Note: Having a large anti-skip buffer tends to use more power, and may reduce your battery life. It is recommended to always use the lowest possible setting that allows correct and continuous playback.

Party Mode Enables unstoppable music playback. When new songs are selected, they are queued at the end of the current dynamic playlist instead of being played immediately.

Pausing and stopping playback is disabled as well as skipping songs and launching plugins. Crossfade This section controls the behavior of the crossfader.

The crossfader, when enabled, smoothly fades one track into the next. This can occur in two situations: an automatic track change or a manual track skip.

Playback Settings the track, moving to the next track in the playlist without user intervention.

A manual track skip goes to the next track immediately when the appropriate button is pressed. Options for crossfade settings are: Enable Crossfade.

If set to Off, crossfade is disabled and all track changes are gapless. If set to Automatic Track Change Only, crossfade occurs for automatic track changes, but not for manual track skips.

The next setting, Manual Track Skip Only, is the opposite: tracks will only crossfade when manually skipped. If set to Shuffle, crossfade is enabled for all track changes, automatic or manual, when the shuffle feature is set to Yes, but disabled otherwise.

If set to Shuffle or Manual Track Skip then crossfade will be active either when shuffle is set to Yes or the track is manually skipped.

If set to Always, tracks will always crossfade into one another. Fade In Delay. Fade In Duration. The length of time, in seconds, that it takes your music to fade in once the Fade In Delay has ended.

Fade Out Delay. Fade Out Duration. The length of time, in seconds, that it takes your music to fade out once the Fade Out Delay has ended.

Fade Out Mode. If set to Crossfade, one song will fade out and the next song will simultaneously fade in. If set to Mix, the ending song will not fade out at all, and will continue to play as normal until its end with the starting song fading in from under it.

Mix mode is not used for manual track skips, even if it is selected here. In this case, the Fade In Delay is reduced to eliminate the gap.

The graphic below illustrates how the different settings work in practice. Playback Settings 58 7. Replaygain This allows you to control the replaygain function.

The purpose of replaygain is to adjust the volume of the music played so that all songs or albums, depending on your settings have the same apparent volume.

This prevents sudden changes in volume when changing between songs recorded at different volume levels. For replaygain to work, the songs must have been processed by a program that adds replaygain information to the ID3 tags or Vorbis tags.

Options for replaygain are: Replaygain Type. Choose the type of replaygain to apply: Album Gain. Maintain a constant volume level between albums, but keep any intentional volume variations between songs in an album.

If album gain value is not available, uses track gain information. Track Gain. Maintain a constant volume level between tracks.

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Herbert Hoffmann 3,5. Heute geöffnet — — Heute geöffnet — Heute geschlossen. Ordinationszeiten Montag — — Terminvereinbarung nicht erforderlich.

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5 thoughts on “Dr JГ¶rg Hoffmann”

  1. Nach meiner Meinung lassen Sie den Fehler zu. Ich kann die Position verteidigen. Schreiben Sie mir in PM, wir werden umgehen.

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